Qualitative research can be used to understand how an individual subjectively perceives and gives meaning to their social reality. Small scale quantitative studies may be less reliable because of the low quantity of data (Denscombe, 2010). Introduction to Social Research: Quantitatie and Qualitative Approaches. Sportscience 4, 1 (2000 "A Strategy for Writing Up Research Results. Data analysis - describe the procedures for processing and analyzing the data.
Introduction, the introduction to a quantitative study is usually written in the present tense and from the third person point of view. Data Analysis Statistics help us turn quantitative data into useful information to help with decision making. An experimental design includes subjects measured before and after a particular treatment, the sample population may be very small and purposefully chosen, and it is intended to establish causality between variables. A good example of a qualitative research method would be unstructured interviews which generate qualitative data through the use of open questions. . The findings should be present in a logical, sequential order. Qualitative researchers want those who are studied to speak for themselves, to provide their perspectives in words and other actions.
Further information about how to effectively present data using charts and graphs can be found here. Results, the finding of your study should be written objectively and in a succinct and precise format. Hypotheses can also be tested because of the used of statistical analysis (Antonius, 2003). Therefore, a qualitative researcher immerses her/himself in the field, in natural surroundings. Quantitative data collection methods are much more structured than Qualitative data collection methods. Department of English, Indiana University of Pennsylvania; Hopkins, Will. Qualitative Research in Psychology, 3, 77101. Do not report any statistical data here; just provide a narrative summary of the key findings and describe what was learned that you did not know before conducting the study. Researcher expertise: Poor knowledge of the application of statistical analysis may negatively affect analysis and subsequent interpretation (Black, 1999). For the qualitative researcher, there is no single reality, it is subjective and exist only in reference to the observer.
Make sure that non-textual elements do not stand in isolation from the text but are being used to supplement the overall description of the results and to help clarify key points being made. Qualitative data is defined as non-numerical data, such as text, video, photographs or audio recordings. In quantitative studies, it is common to use graphs, tables, charts, and other non-textual elements to help the reader understand the data. Many times those that undertake a research project often find they are not aware of the differences between Qualitative Research and Quantitative Research methods. . Strengths Because of close researcher involvement, the researcher gains an insider's view of the field. Study population and sampling - where did the data come from; how robust is it; note where gaps exist or what was excluded.
"Writing a Quantitative Research Thesis.". Test your vocabulary with our 10-question quiz! If appropriate, describe the specific instruments of analysis used to study each research objective, including mathematical techniques and the type of computer software used to manipulate the data. Because of the subjective nature of qualitative data and its origin in single contexts, it is difficult to apply conventional standards of reliability and validity. Interpretation of results - reiterate the research problem being investigated and compare and contrast the findings with the research questions underlying the study. Analysis of qualitative data is difficult and expert knowledge of an area is necessary to try to interpret qualitative data, and great care must be taken when doing so, for example, if looking for symptoms of mental illness. Conclusion, end your study by to summarizing the topic and provide a final comment and assessment of the study.
Describes the theoretical framework - provide an outline of the theory or hypothesis underpinning your study. Research following a qualitative approach is exploratory and seeks to explain how and why a particular phenomenon, or behavior, operates as it does in a particular context. Qualitative data collection methods vary using unstructured or semi-structured techniques. The discussion should meld together your findings in relation to those identified in the literature review, and placed within the context of the theoretical framework underpinning the study. The researcher does not just leave the field with mountains of empirical data and then easily write up his or her findings. If you gathered it yourself, describe what type of instrument you used and why. Key Features, events can be understood adequately only if they are seen in context. Future research note the need for future research linked to your studys limitations or to any remaining gaps in the literature that were not addressed in your study. The problem of adequate validity or reliability is a major criticism.