The more features of the painting that you recognize, the more powerful your interpretation will. We cannot understand what a text says without recognizing relationships between sentences. . What a text means interpretation analyzes the text and asserts a meaning for the text as a whole. The concept of the open text comes from, umberto Eco 's collection of essays. Eco understand the difficulties with this perspective, but he ends by saying that this article, as all works, is still a "work in movement an "open work" and still a "work in progress". While the modes of reading and discussing texts can be separated out for purposes of discussion, and it is relatively easy to distinguish between the resulting forms of discussion, in practice these reading techniques overlap. . A non-critical reader might read a history book to learn the facts of the situation or to discover an accepted interpretation of those events. You see different color paint (well, not in this illustration!) and you see how the paint was applied to the wood. . In contrast, a closed text leads the reader to one intended interpretation.
Brecht, which are "open" in the same way that an argument between two people is open: both sides (the actors and the viewers) want and anticipate a solution at the end, but no solution ever comes, leaving us to wander to find meaning. Readers examine each of the three areas of choice, and consider their effect on the meaning. They will freely infer the purpose of an action, the essence of a behavior, or the intent of a political decision. Making a contrast to clarify a point? They are designed to show you what to look for ( analysis ) and how to think about what you find ( inference ). And book reviewers often use the book under reviews as a taking-off point for a discussion of the topic itselfall elements that go beyond, but depend on, a careful reading of the text in question. The first part what to look for involves recognizing those aspects of a discussion that control the meaning. You recognize how aspects of the painting are highlighted by their placement or by the lighting. All Three Modes of Reading and Discussion Are Legitimate. A critical reader might read the same work to appreciate how a particular perspective on the events and a particular selection of facts can lead to particular understanding.
He then applied this idea of "open works" to literary texts and other works of art. Why, when we focus on the left side of the picture, does the woman looks somehow taller or more erect than if we focus on the right side? He continues by comparing open works. Restatement, description and interpretation are not the only ways one can respond to a text. . And yet there is still that feeling that texts are somehow different. We can restate a text; we cannot restate a painting or action. . The reader's eye may scan the page, but the reader's mind ranges up, down, and sideways, piecing together evidence to make sense of the presentation as a whole. Finally, critical readers then infer what the text, as a whole, means, based on the earlier analysis. These kind of "openness" is not only for musical works, it might be any kind of artistic work (painting, poem, performance etc.). But you are also aware of a painting. .
The Death of the Author ". We examine features running throughout the text to see how the discussion shapes our perception of reality. The reader will read a certain work differently every time, depending on his/her emotional state, physical state and political world view. Note: These remarks are primarily directed at non-fictional texts. To the critical reader, any single text provides but one portrayal of the facts, one individuals take on the subject matter. What a Text Says, Does, and Means: Reaching for an Interpretation.
An example of this kind of reading is found in the stories. We can parse each out for analysis. Others are so attuned to accepting the written word that they fail to see the text as a viable topic of conversation. The key thing is to know which style of reading you want to do at any time, how to do it, and how to tell whether you are actually doing it successfully. But they will hesitate to go beyond what they take a text to "say" on its own. You can distinguish each mode of analysis by the subject matter of the discussion: What a text says restatement talks about the same topic as the original text. Readers gain knowledge by memorizing the statements within a text. Test Your Vocabulary, may 2021 Words of the Day Quiz. The models are designed to identify varying levels of sophistication and insight in reading and discussion. .
They are simply different, and involve different observations and reasoning. . Observations and realizations at any one level of reading invariably support and spark observations at another. Rightly or wrongly, much of any student's career is spent reading and restating texts. Readers bring to their reading recognition of those symbols, an understanding of what the words mean within the given social and historical context, and an understanding of the remarks within their own framework of what might make sense. Einstein 's idea of the universe, which is governed by precise laws but seems random at first. Observations characteristic of all three forms of response can be included in an interpretation. Readers infer as much, if not more, than they are told. Each requires inferences from evidence within the text: recognizing purpose involves inferring a basis for choices of content and language recognizing tone and persuasive elements involves classifying the nature of language choices recognizing bias involves classifying the nature.
Non-critical reading is satisfied with recognizing what a text says and restating the key remarks. They recognize the various ways in which each and every text is the unique creation of a unique author. These too are legitimate forms of response, but they require a critical reading of the text first if they are to be meaningful. . Dividing reading into reading what a text says, does, and means is somewhat like dividing bicycle riding into concern for balance, speed, and direction. . There are assertions "in black and white" to fall back.
But they are the ones of interest here, if only because they are the responses that must precede most other forms of response. When we go beyond the words, we are reading meaning. Interpretation, to non -critical readers, texts provide facts. . And yet we may focus on one or another at any particular time. . Not to be confused with, openDocument. Recall that critical reading assumes that each author offers a portrayal of the topic. When reading texts, as when reading paintings, we increase understanding by recognizing the craftsmanship of the creation, the choices that the artist/author made to portray the topic a certain way. Readers can obviously offer their own ideas on a topicbut that does not fall under the topic of discussing a text. Roland Barthes 's distinction between 'readerly' (lisible) and 'writerly' (scriptible) texts as set out in his 1968 essay, ".
This kind of "openness" is derived from the science of the time, he says. Critical reading thus relies on an examination of those choices that any and all authors must make when framing a presentation: choices of content, language, and structure. 2, content edit, in this essay, Umberto Eco describes a special kind of musical works that can be organized and re-organized by the performers before they are played to the audience. Kafka, in which his symbolic actions cannot be read in one definitive way; each reading will end up with similar and multiple meanings. The first order of business is to make sense of the text, and it is with that task that our efforts are concerned here. Stories present actions; readers infer personalities, motives, and intents. Each is not only distinct but can be fully anticipated and directed by the author (or the artist) of the work.
When people believed in a geocentric world, they expected every work of art to have only one definitive interpretation, but as people found out about the universe and the magnitude of stars in the sky and their hierarchy. 1 : the act or the result of interpreting : explanation 2 : a particular adaptation or version of a work, method, or style 3 : a teaching technique that combines factual with stimulating explanatory information natural history interpretation program. Look at Leonardo da Vinci's painting Mona Lisa, and you see a woman smiling. . Yet a text is simply symbols on a page. . Critical readers thus recognize not only what a text says, but also how that text portrays the subject matter. . The divisions between the three modes of reading are, to some extent, artificial. . Looking at the Mona Lisa, you know that you are not looking at Mona Lisa, a person, but The Mona Lisa, a painting. . Umberto Eco makes a distinction between these kind of works, which are "open" in their interpretation, to the musical works from the beginning, which are open in their structural sense.